Resources for Communication Skills

Friday, March 21, 2008


Origin of this book
May 2004 Berkeley, conference on “Methods in Phonology”
Conference in honor of John Ohala
Focus of this book
Foundational experimental methods
Methods to test phonological hypothesis on
the knowledge of speakers and hears’ native sound system
the acquisition of the sound system
the laws that govern the sound system
Methods are not static
Recent change in “methods in Phonology”
The rise of new experimental techniques
Increased use of experimental methods in Phonology
Factors responsible for this change
Factors causing recent change in “methods in Phonology”
The rise of new experimental techniques
Increased use of experimental methods in Phonology
Factors responsible for this change
Increasingly diverse questions
Structure of grammar
Representation of sound patterns
Phonetic and phonological constraints
New prospective
Development of the techniques
Availability of corpora
Phonological unification in recognition and application
Experiment embedment within other science fields
To unify the established knowledge and the account of language and speech
Modeling in Phonology and relevant techniques
The ability to model relevant behaviors and patterns
The increasing importance of modeling tools
Phonological findings & theoretical implications therefrom

Methods in Phonology

Methods in Phonology

John Ohala's Home Page

21 MAY 2004 all day UC Berkeley Conference on Methods in Phonology

FRIDAY, 21 MAY 2004 all day UC Berkeley Conference on Methods in Phonology 370 Dwinelle (UC Berkeley)

Lise Menn, University of Colorado: "From mysticism to mechanism in child phonology: Getting closer to a psycholinguistically plausible model of phonological development" (Mon, Apr 14th)

Sunday, March 16, 2008

Sound Therapy

Sound Therapy


The iMuse (Interactive MUltiSensory Environment) research and training centre is located in the North East of England at the University of Sunderland, School of Arts, Design, Media and Culture

History of iMuse (PDF): Ellis, P. (2006). The development of interactive multi-sensory environments for expression, 1992-2007. Keynote address presented to the Luxembourg society for Music Therapy

iMuse is contributing to a Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) for Music and Inclusivity

Research & Publications

M.A. Music Therapy, Immaculata University, Immaculata, PA 19345


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Classroom Online

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Calorine (Classroom Online): Let us Build Knowledge together




Dr. Mao's Secrets of Longevity

Sunday, March 2, 2008

Phonology References

Phonology References


2007 Experimental Approaches to Phonology (Oxford Linguistics) by Maria-Josep Sole (Editor), Patrice Speeter Beddor (Editor), Manjari Ohala (Editor) Oxford University Press, USA (Paperback - Sep 7, 2007)

This wide-ranging survey of experimental methods in phonetics and phonology shows the insights and results provided by different methods of investigation, including laboratory-based, statistical, psycholinguistic, computational-modeling, corpus, and field techniques. The five chapters in the first part of the book examine the recent history and interrelations of theory and method. The remaining 18 chapters are organized into parts devoted to four key current areas of research: phonological universals; phonetic variation and phonological change; maintaining, enhancing, and modeling phonological contrasts; and phonological knowledge. The book provides fresh insights into the findings and theoretical advances that emerge from experimental investigation of phonological structure and phonological knowledge, as well as critical perspectives on experimental methods in the perception, production, and modeling of speech. This book will be a valuable asset for all researchers into the sound structure of language, including scholars and advanced students of phonetics, phonology, speech science, psycholinguistics, and applied linguistics.

About the Author

Maria-Josep Sole is Professor of English Phonetics and Linguistics at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain. She has published on speech production, the articulatory and perceptual basis of sound change, cross-linguistic phonological patterns, and the phonetics-phonology interface. She has published in leading scientific journals such as Journal of Phonetics and Language and Speech, and has contributed chapters to the Papers in Laboratory Phonology series. Patrice Speeter Beddor is Professor of Linguistics and currently Chair of the Department of Linguistics at the University of Michigan. Her primary research interests are in the areas of speech perception, coarticulation, and the phonetic factors underlying sound change, and her major recent publications focus on the intersection of these areas of inquiry. Manjari Ohala is Professor, and currently Interim Chair of, the Departments of Linguistics and Language Development at San Jose State University. She is the author of Aspects of Hindi Phonology, co-editor of Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, and has published numerous articles on the experimental phonetics/phonology of Hindi.

Phonetic Basis of Phonology

2003 Phonetic Data Analysis by Peter Ladefoged (Author)

Describing how people talk requires recording and analyzing phonetic data. This is true for researchers investigating the variant pronunciations of street names in Los Angeles, missionaries translating the Bible into a little-known tongue, and scholars obtaining data from a carefully controlled group in a laboratory experiment. Phonetic Data Analysis examines the procedures involved in describing the sounds of a language and illustrates the basic techniques of experimental phonetics, most of them requiring little more than a tape recorder, a video camera, and a computer. This book enables readers to work with a speaker in a classroom setting or to go out into the field and make their own discoveries about how the sounds of a language are made. Peter Ladefoged, one of the world 's leading phoneticians, introduces the experimental phonetic techniques for describing the major phonetic characteristics of any language. Throughout the book there are also comments, written in a more anecdotal fashion, on Ladefoged 's own fieldwork.

Elements of Acoustic Phonetics by Peter Ladefoged (Author)

Acoustic Phonetics by Kenneth N. Stevens

Principles of Phonetics by John Laver

Vowels and Consonants by Peter Ladefoged

Handbook of the International Phonetic Ass... by International Phonetic Association

Acoustic Phonetics by Kenneth N. Stevens

2003 Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics by Keith Johnson

2002 A Practical Introduction to Phonetics (Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics) by J. C. Catford (Paperback - Jan 10, 2002)

1996 Phonetic Symbol Guide by Geoffrey K. Pullum and William A. Ladusaw (Paperback - Jul 30, 1996)

2003 Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (Routledge English Language Introductions) by B. Collins (Hardcover - Dec 18, 2003)

2002 Phonetics, Phonology, and Cognition (Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics) by Jacques Durand and Bernard Laks (Paperback - Nov 8, 2002)

2006 An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics) by John Clark, Janet Fletcher, and Colin Yallop

1996 The Sounds of the World's Languages (Phonological Theory) by Peter Ladefoged and Ian Maddieson (Paperback - Jan 1, 1996)Illustrated

2005 A Course in Phonetics (with CD-ROM) by Peter Ladefoged (Paperback - Jun 24, 2005)

Primary References

2007 The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology by Paul de Lacy (Editor)

Phonology - the study of how the sounds of speech are represented in our minds - is one of the core areas of linguistic theory, and is central to the study of human language. This state-of-the-art handbook brings together the world’s leading experts in phonology to present the most comprehensive and detailed overview of the field to date. Focusing on the most recent research and the most influential theories, the authors discuss each of the central issues in phonological theory, explore a variety of empirical phenomena, and show how phonology interacts with other aspects of language such as syntax, morphology, phonetics, and language acquisition. Providing a one-stop guide to every aspect of this important field, The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology will serve as an invaluable source of readings for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, an informative overview for linguists, and a useful starting point for anyone beginning phonological research.

2006 Laboratory Phonology 8 by Conference in Laboratory Phonology 2002 (Author), Louis M. Goldstein (Author), D. H. Whalen (Author), Catherine T. Best (Author)

This collection of papers from Eighth Conference on Laboratory Phonology (held in New Haven, CT) explores what laboratory data that can tell us about the nature of speakers' phonological competence and how they acquire it, and outlines models of the human phonological capacity that can meet the challenge of formalizing that competence. The window on the phonological capacity is broadened by including, for the first time in the Laboratory Phonology series, work on signed languages and papers that explicitly compare signed and spoken phonologies.

A major focus, cutting across signed and spoken phonologies, is that phonological competence must include both qualitative (or categorical) and quantitative (or variable) knowledge. Theoretical approaches represented in the collection for accommodating these types of knowledge include modularity, dynamical grammars, and probabilistic grammars. A second major focus is on the acquisition of this knowledge. Here the papers pursue the consequences for acquisition of taking into account the richness and variability of the adult systems that provide input to the child. The final focus is on how phonological knowledge guides speech production. Data and models address the question of how speech gestures interact with one another locally (through articulatory constraints and syllable-level organization) and how they interact with the prosodic structure of an utterance.

The twenty-six papers in the collection include invited contributions from Diane Brentari, David Corina, David Perlmutter, D. Robert Ladd, Diamandis Gafos, Marilyn Vihman, Shelley Velleman, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, and Dani Byrd.

2004/2009 Evolutionary Phonology: The Emergence of Sound Patterns by Juliette Blevins (Author) (Paperback - Feb 1, 2009)

'The book contains everything that makes a linguistics book fascinating to read: an overview of the field, a provocative theory for explaining phonological facts, and numerous contemporary and historical examples from a wide sample of languages to support the new theory … As a whole, I think the book makes an interesting contribution to the field of phonology. The theory presented proposes that much of the complexity of human sound systems is due to historical processes that are set in motion by different kinds of misperception, while the actual learning and representations in the mind/brain are relatively simple and general … Blevins' theory does not propose strict formal rules and algorithms to process and learn sound system, but rather a number of mechanisms, heuristics and ways of looking at linguistic phenomena that can be adapted to particular instances … I consider this to be a practical perspective … all in all, I found this book easier to read and less formal than most books on phonological theory … this book is well worth reading for a new perspective on phonology that conforms to the trend towards more data-driven models of language.' Journal of Linguistics

Book Description
Evolutionary Phonology is a new theory of sound patterns which synthesizes results in historical linguistics, phonetics, and phonological theory. In this groundbreaking book, Juliette Blevins explores the nature of sound patterns and sound change in human language over the past 7000-8000 years. She presents a new approach to the problem of how genetically unrelated languages, from families as far apart as Native American, Australian Aboriginal, Austronesian, and Indo-European, can often show similar sound patterns, and also tackles the converse problem of why there are notable exceptions to most of the patterns that are often regarded as universal tendencies or constraints. A formal model of sound change is presented that integrates phonetic variation and patterns of misperception to account for attested sound systems, without reference to markedness or naturalness within the synchronic grammar.

2004 Phonetically Based Phonology by by Bruce Hayes (Editor), Robert Kirchner (Editor), Donca Steriade (Editor)

This collection of essays by a team of leading scholars affords a wide-ranging study of phonetically-based phonology, investigating the role of phonetics in a broad range of key phonological phenomena. Phonetically-based phonology is centered around the hypothesis that phonologies of languages are determined by phonetic principles; that is, phonetic patterns involving ease of articulation and perception are expressed linguistically as grammatical constraints. Diverse and comprehensive in its coverage, the book will be welcomed by all linguists interested in the relationship between phonetics and phonological theory.

2003 Laboratory Phonology 7 (Phonology and Phonetics, 4) by Conference in Laboratory Phonology 2000 (University of Nijmegen) (Author), Carlos Gussenhoven (Editor), Natasha Warner (Editor) (University of Nijmegen)

This collection of recent papers in Laboratory Phonology approaches phonological theory from several different empirical directions. Psycholinguistic research into the perception and production of speech has produced results that challenge current conceptions of phonological structure. Field work studies provide fresh insights into the structure of phonological features, and the phonology-phonetics interface is investigated in phonetic research involving both segments and prosody, while the role of underspecification is put to the test in automatic speech recognition. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.

1999 A Workbook in Phonology by Iggy M. Roca

A Workbook in Phonology has been written to accompany A Course in Phonology, but may be used as a self-contained work or in conjunction with other teaching books. It contains over a hundred exercises, arranged in order of difficulty within each section, and covering the areas of distinctive features, underspecification, syllables, stress, tone, the phonology/morphology interface, phonological domains, derivational formalism, and Optimality Theory. As an accompanying volume, it is specifically related to the chapters and sections of A Course in Phonology, and it includes an Exercise Cross-Reference Table to facilitate its use.

About the Author
Iggy Roca is Professor in the Department of Language and Linguistics at the University of Essex. He specializes in phonology and is the author of Generative Phonology (1994). Among the volumes he has edited is Derivations and Constraints in Phonology (1997). Wyn Johnson wrote her doctorate on the lexical phonology of French, and has been teaching phonology at the University of Essex since 1983.

1999 A Course in Phonology by Iggy M. Roca (Author), Wyn Johnson (Author)

This textbook presupposes no prior knowledge of phonology or phonetics, and takes the learner step by step through the various stages and areas of the discipline without sacrificing rigor or breadth of coverage. The book's extraordinary clarity makes it readily understandable by anyone with a keen interest in phonology. The substance of phonology is more constant and more general than the limitations inherent in any particular theory or formalism may suggest. The book therefore provides a coherent account for beginner-students, rooted primarily - but by no means exclusively - in the phonology of English. No particular theory or formal apparatus is preferred over another; instead, the essence of phonology is provided in the most neutral possible way, for the maximum benefit of the reader. The book avoids entanglement in doctrinal disputes and formal minutiae, and aims instead for the general and the permanent. The book reviews all the major advances that have taken place in generative phonology over the past thirty years, including the recent Optimality Theory. Its many pedagogical features encourage interaction with the reader, and include a wealth of check-points, chapter previews and summaries, lists of key points, and exercises for further practice.

Card catalog description
A Course in Phonology presupposes no prior knowledge of phonology or phonetics, and takes the learner step by step through the various stages and areas of the discipline without sacrificing rigour or breadth of coverage. The book's extraordinary clarity makes it readily understandable by anyone with a keen interest in phonology. The book reviews all the major advances that have taken place in generative phonology over the past thirty years, including Optimality Theory. Its many pedagogical features encourage interaction with the reader, and include a wealth of check-points, chapter previews and summaries, lists of key points, and exercises for further practice.

1983 Problem Book in Phonology by Morris Halle (Author), George N. Clements (Author)

Working with problems is an essential part of courses that introduce students to modern phonology. This book provides hands-on experience with a major area of modern phonology, including phonetics; phonetic variation; natural classes of sounds; alternations; rule systems; and prosodic phonology. An introductory essay gives an overview of some of the principal results and assumptions of current phonological theory. The problems are taken from a wide variety of languages, and many are drawn from the authors' firsthand research. All have been used by the authors in their introductory courses, primarily at Harvard and MIT, and are meant to be used in conjunction with a textbook and/or other materials provided by the classroom instructor.

Morris Halle is Ferrari P. Ward Professor of Modern Languages and Linguistics and Institute Professor at MIT. George N. Clements is Associate Professor of Linguistics at Harvard University.

2007 Prosodic Typology: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing includes CD by Sun-Ah Jun (Editor)

This book illustrates an approach to prosodic typology through the intonational phonology of thirteen typologically different languages and the transcription system of prosody known as Tones and Break Indices (ToBI). This is the first book introducing the history and principles of this system,
and it covers European languages, Asian languages, an Australian aboriginal language, and an American Indian language. It is the first book on intonation that includes sound files on a CD-ROM.

About the Author

Sun-Ah Jun is an Associate Professor at the Department of Linguistics, UCLA, where she teaches phonetics, intonation, and phonology. She has been teaching at UCLA since she obtained her Ph.D from Ohio State University in 1993. She has also taught at the 2001 LSA Summer Institute, Santa Barbara,
. Her research focuses on Intonational Phonology, Laboratory Phonology, Phonology-Syntax interface, and the role of prosody in semantics, language acquisition, and sentence processing. She has published a book, The Phonetics and Phonology of Korean Prosody: Intonational Phonology and
Prosodic Structure (Garland Publishing, Inc.).

The Phonology of Tone and Intonation by Carlos Gussenhoven

1997 Intonational Phonology by D. Robert Ladd (Author)

"Intonational Phonology, written by one of the leading experts on linguistic intonation, provides the best overview in existence on the subject of intonation and will not be demoted from that position any time soon. Given that all languages employ intonation phenomena, this work should have broad appeal, and anyone with a serious interest in analyzing the intonation structures of a language will find it invaluable. It is not only well thought out, but also well written. Having said that, the prospective reader should bear in mind that the work is quite theoretical and definitely not bathtub reading. Nevertheless, Ladd's many years of experience bring to the volume a richness and depth that make the effort invested in reading it well worthwhile." Notes on Linguistics

Book Description
Intonation is becoming increasingly prominent in areas from phonology to speech recognition. Ladd gives an exceptionally clear overview of the key ideas of Pierrehumbert's autosegmental-metrical theory to intonational phonology, and discusses alternative approaches. He also looks critically at the version put forward by generativists, and offers his own solutions. This book will appeal to phonologists as an original contribution, and will be welcomed by students and researchers, who will find in it the ideal overview of recent work.

Intonation by Alan Cruttenden

Handbook of Speech Perception by Robert Remez

The Handbook of Discourse Analysis by Deborah Schiffrin

Methods in Empirical Prosody Research by Stefan Sudhoff

General References

*2007 Hidden Generalizations: Phonological Opacity in Optimality Theory (Advances in Optimality Theory) (Paperback) by John J. McCarthy (Author)

Hidden Generalizations is the first monograph devoted exclusively to the problem of phonological opacity. Opacity arises when the conditions for or results of an active phonological process are not evident in the speech signal. Opacity is particularly important in Optimality Theory, which lacks the standard means of analyzing opacity, rule ordering. This book is a thorough reexamination of phonological opacity. It finds insights in the extensive literature on rule interaction of the 1970's. It describes and critiques the oft-voiced opinion that there are no authentic cases of opacity. It evaluates representational approaches to opacity that emerged in the 1980's. Primarily, though, it discusses various ideas about opacity in OT and offers a new proposal, candidate chain theory. This proposal is illustrated and tested with analyses of the phonology of several Semitic languages.

*2006 Markedness by Paul de Lacy (Author)

‘Markedness’ refers to the tendency of languages to show a preference for particular structures or sounds. This bias towards ‘marked’ elements is consistent within and across languages, and tells us a great deal about what languages can and cannot do. This pioneering study presents a groundbreaking theory of markedness in phonology. De Lacy argues that markedness is part of our linguistic competence, and is determined by three conflicting mechanisms in the brain: (a) pressure to preserve marked sounds (‘preservation’), (b) pressure to turn marked sounds into unmarked sounds (‘reduction’), and (c) a mechanism allowing the distinction between marked and unmarked sounds to be collapsed (‘conflation’). He shows that due to these mechanisms, markedness occurs only when preservation is irrelevant. Drawing on examples of phenomena such as epenthesis, neutralization, assimilation, vowel reduction and sonority-driven stress, Markedness offers an important new insight into this essential concept in the understanding of human language.

About the Author
Paul de Lacy is Assistant Professor in the Department of Linguistics, Rutgers University.

2005 Understanding Phonology by Carlos Gussenhoven

2005 Prosodies by Sonia Frota (Editor), Marina Vigario (Editor), Maria Joao Freitas (Editor)

Prosodies, in the broad Firthian sense, covers phenomena that extend over stretches of segmental and featural units that must be examined with respect to their interaction with other features to fully appreciate their role in the phonetics and phonology of a given language. The papers deal with a wide range of subjects, from intonational prominence and prosodic phrasing to the acoustic properties of segments and features. Prosodies significantly broadens our knowledge of languages and dialect varieties that as yet have not been carefully investigated such as Cairene and Lebanese Arabic, Catalan including Central Catalan and the insular dialects of Majorcan, Minorcan and Alguer Catalan, Galician, Italian, various dialects of Portuguese (Standard European, Northern European, and Brazilian Portuguese), and different varieties of Argentine Spanish as well as Peninsular Spanish. However, well-known West Germanic languages, English, Dutch and German, have not been neglected. Many of the contributions are the first account of the phenomena addressed in the language(s) under consideration thus bringing new data to light. Moreover, most papers take a cross-linguistic or cross-dialectal view favouring a better understanding of language similarities and differences, as well as of language variation and change. This approach is crucial in the case of neighbouring languages/varieties and is an important contribution to the development of language typologies. And as is characteristic of the series, the research presented in Prosodies cover laboratory approaches as well as theoretical investigations.

2005 Introducing Phonology by David Odden (Author)

This accessible textbook provides a clear and practical introduction to phonology, the study of sound patterns in language. Designed for undergraduates with only a basic knowledge of linguistics, it logically develops the techniques of phonological analysis. Over sixty graded exercises encourage students to make their own analyses of phonological patterns and processes, based on extensive data and problem sets from a variety of languages.

2003 The Syllable in Optimality Theory by Caroline Féry (Editor), Ruben van de Vijver (Editor)

there is much to admire in this book … It is well worth the time and energy necessary to read and digest it, and will hopefully find the wide readership it deserves.' Comptes Rendus

Book Description
This book provides an overview of the role of the syllable in Optimality Theory (OT) and ways in which problems that relate to the analysis of syllable structure can be solved in OT. The contributions to the book show that the syllable not only sheds light on certain properties of OT itself. They also show that OT is capable of describing and adequately analyzing many issues that are problematic in other theories. The analyses are based on a wealth of languages.

2003 Optimality Theory in Phonology by John J. McCarthy (Editor)

Optimality Theory in Phonology: A Reader is a collection of readings on this important new theory by leading figures in the field, starting with a lengthy excerpt from the original source, Prince and Smolensky 's never-before-published report Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar. The 33 selections cover a broad range of topics in phonology and include many of the foundational works, some of them revised to reflect the most recent developments.Optimality Theory in Phonology is designed as a text for advanced phonology courses, but is also of interest as a reference work for scholars in the field of linguistics and related disciplines. Each chapter includes introductory notes to set the stage and highlight connections, as well as a list of study and research questions.

About the Author
John J. McCarthy is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. His widely cited but unpublished manuscript "Prosodic Morphology I: Constraint Interaction and Satisfaction" (with Alan Prince, 1993) has been an important factor in the dissemination of Optimality Theory. He is also the author of Formal Problems in Semitic Phonology and Morphology (1985) and A Thematic Guide to Optimality Theory (2002).

2002 Tone (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) (Paperback) by Moira Yip (Author)

The sounds of language can be divided into consonants, vowels, and tones--the use of pitch to convey meaning. Seventy percent of the world's languages use pitch in this way. Assuming little or no prior knowledge of the topic, this textbook provides a clearly organized introduction to tone and tonal phonology. Comprehensive in scope, it examines the main types of tonal systems found in Africa, the Americas, and Asia, using examples from the widest- possible range of tone languages.

1999 Phonological Theory by John A. Goldsmith (Editor)

This volume provides the most comprehensive and authoritative collection of the key readings in phonological theory. It includes key classic and contemporary readings in the main areas of phonological research, including autosegmental phonology, syllable structure, lexical phonology, metrical phonology, the phonology/syntax interface and optimality theory, complemented by introductions and bibliography. Designed to complement the outstanding Handbook of Phonological Theory, this volume is ideal as a primary text for course use. It also represents an unparalleled work of reference for anyone interested in recent developments in linguistic theory.

1996 The Handbook of Phonological Theory by John A. Goldsmith (Editor)

The Handbook of Phonological Theory brings together for the first time a detailed examination of the state of phonological theory in this decade. In a series of essays on topics as varied as underspecification theory, prosodic morphology, and syllable structure, 38 leading phonologists offer a critical survey of the leading and guiding ideas that lie behind the research in this active area of linguistic research. In all cases, the contributions have been written by leading workers in the areas which they discuss, and in many cases, the chapters of the Handbook are the first published expositions of new perspectives which have already begun to shape the climate of research in the field. Topics discussed include phonological theory, the organization of phonological gramar, and specific languages and language families that have been particularly important in recent phonological theory.

About the Author
John A. Goldsmith is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Chicago. He is author of Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology, also published by Blackwell.

1995 Metrical Stress Theory by Bruce Hayes (Author)

n this account of metrical stress theory, Bruce Hayes builds on the notion that stress constitutes linguistic rhythm—that stress patterns are rhythmically organized, and that formal structures proposed for rhythm can provide a suitable account of stress. Through an extensive typological survey of word stress rules that uncovers widespread asymmetries, he identifies a fundamental distinction between iambic and trochaic rhythm, called the "Iambic/Trochaic law," and argues that it has pervasive effects among the rules and structures responsible for stress.

Hayes incorporates the iambic/trochaic opposition into a general theory of word stress assignment, intended to account for all languages in which stress is assigned on phonological as opposed to morphological principles. His theory addresses particularly problematic areas in metrical work, such as ternary stress and unusual weight distinctions, and he proposes new theoretical accounts of them. Attempting to take more seriously the claim of generative grammar to be an account of linguistic universals, Hayes proposes analyses for the stress patterns of over 150 languages.

Hayes compares his own innovative views with alternatives from the literature, allowing students to gain an overview of the field. Metrical Stress Theory should interest all who seek to understand the role of stress in language.

1990 Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech. by John Kingston (Editor), Mary E. Beckman (Editor), John C. Kingston (Author)

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Schools of Phonology

Schools of Phonology

Historical Phonology

Kazan School

American Structuralist Phonology

Prague School of Phonology (1939)

Copenhagen School (1943)

London School: Prosodic Phonology (1946, 1957)

Dependency Phonology (1950s, 1986, 1987)

Tagmemic Phonology(1987)

Sign Language Phonology (1960s, 1995)

Stratificational Phonology (1960s)

Generative Phonology (1968)

Syllabic Phonology (1969, 1995)

Government Phonology

Nonsegmental Phonology(1976)

Natural Phonology (1972, 1979)

Natural Generative Phonology (1979)

Natural Equational Phonology (1981)

Categorial Phonology (1960s, 1981)

CV Phonology (1983)

Discourse phonological (1984)

Particle Phonology (1984)

Atomic Phonology (1985)

Lexical Phonology (1985)

Declarative Phonology (1986)

Declarative Lexical Phonology

Prosodic Phonology (1986)

Autosegmental Phonology (1976, 1989)

Three Dimensional Phonology (1980)

Multidimensional Phonology

Metrical Phonology (1982, 1989)

Moraic Phonology (1983, 1991)

Dynamic Phonology (1985)

Experimental Phonology (1986)

Laboratory Phonology(1990)

Formal Phonology (1992)

Constraint Based Phonology (1992)

Attribute Value Phonology (1992)

Cognitive Phonology (1993)

Harmonic Phonology (1993)

Optimality Phonology (1993, 1997, 1999)

Grounded Phonology (1994)

Computational Phonology (1995)

Intonational Phonology (1997)

Functional Phonology (1998)

Second Language Phonology (2001)

Phonetically Based Phonology (2004)

Evolutionary Phonology (2004)